The knowledge that a professional undergraduate accounting should include:
- Knowledge of accounting, finance and other related sciences.
- Knowledge of business activities and organizing.
- Knowledge and competence in information technology.
Knowledge of accounting, finance and other related knowledge.
Knowledge of accounting, finance and related sciences should cover the following subjects:
- Financial accounting and financial statements
- Management accounting and management control
- Business and trade law
- Audit and assurance
- Finance and financial management and
- Ethics and professional values.
Knowledge of business activities and organizing.
Knowledge in this field should cover the following subjects:
- Business environment
- Corporate Governance
- Business ethics
- Money market
- Quantitative methods
- Organizational behavior
- Strategic management and decision making
- Marketing as well
- International trade and globalization
Knowledge and competence in information technology
Knowledge and competence in information technology should cover the following areas:
- General knowledge of information technology
- Knowledge of information technology control
- Competence in the field of information technology control and
- Competence as a designer or appraiser or manager of information systems as well as a combination of such competencies.
Any individual who wishes to become a professional accounting graduate should have some of the following skills:
- Intellectual skills
- Technical and functional skills
- Personal skills
- Interpersonal and communication skills
- Organizational and business management skills
Intellectual skills are divided into 6 levels, namely knowledge, application, analysis, synthesis that combines knowledge from several fields, predicts and interjects conclusions and evaluations. It is very important for every individual to reach the highest level in every qualification required
Intellectual skills enable a professional accounting scholar to solve problems, make decisions and apply appropriate judgments to any complex organizational conditions. This expertise is often gained through a wide range of public education.
Intellectual skills required include the following
- Ability to locate, obtain, organize and understand information derived from humans, print media and electronic media.
- Ability to investigate, to examine, to think logically, to know cause and to analyze critically
- Ability to identify and solve unstructured and unusual problems
Technical and Functional Skills
This capability comprises and general capabilities as well as specific accounting abilities that include
- Mathematical and statistical applications and information and technology expertise
- Decision modeling and risk analysis
- Compliance with applicable laws and regulations
This ability is related to the behavior and sika of professional accounting scholars. Developing these attitudes and behaviors can help individual learning and improvement that include:
- Self Management
- Initiative, ability to influence and self learning
- Ability to select and share priorities with limited resources and manage jobs with very tight deadlines
- Ability to anticipate and adapt to change
- Consideration of the implications of professional values, ethics and behavior in decision-making and
- Professional skepticism
Interpersonal and Communication Skills
This ability enables professional accounting scholars to work with outsiders of the organization, receiving and transmitting information, giving adequate consideration and making decisions effectively. The components covered by this skill are:
- Work with others in a consultation process, to persist and resolve problems
- Working in teams
- Interact with different individuals culturally and intellectually
- Negotiate acceptable agreements and settlements within the professional environment
- Work effectively within the multicultural
- Present, discuss, report and defend opinions effectively through formal and informal communication both written and oral.
- Listening and reading effectively, including sensitivity to cultural and linguistic differences.
Organizational and business management skills
Expertise in this field has become an increasingly important part for professional accounting scholars. Accounting scholars are required to play a more active role in the operational activities of the organization. Previous accounting undergraduate duties may be limited to providing data to be used by others, but now accounting scholars are often part of the decision-making group. As a consequence, it is essential for an accounting scholar to understand all aspects of organizational management. Therefore, professional accounting scholars need to have a sound business knowledge, political awareness and global knowledge.
Expertise in this field includes:
- Strategic planning, project management, human resource management and decision making
- Ability to organize and delegate tasks, motivate and develop human resources
- Leadership and
- Consideration and professional wisdom
The process of professional undergraduate accounting education should include values and behaviors that lead to a commitment to:
- Public interest and sensitivity to social responsibility
- Self-development and continuous learning
- Reliable, responsible, timely and respectful
- Applicable laws and regulations
The approach of each program in relation to learning of professional values, ethics and behavior will reflect their respective cultural, cultural and state objectives, at least the program should include:
- Ethical principles
- Differences in regulatory details, ethical frameworks and their advantages and disadvantages
- Mastery of basic ethical principles of integrity, objectivity, commitment to competence and professional skills are adequate and able to keep a secret
- Professional behavior and compliance with technical standards.
- Concept of independence, skepticism, accountability and public expectations
- Ethics and professional social responsibility
- Ethics and law include the relationship between law, regulation and the public interest
- As a result of unethical behavior towards individuals, professions and the wider community
- Ethics in business activities and good governance
- Ethics and professionalism of accountants; Whistle blowing, conflicts of interest, ethical dilemmas and resolutions.